Khān Abdul Ghaffār Khān (1890 – 20 January 1988) , also known as Fakhr-e Afghān (lit. "pride of Afghans"), and Bāchā Khān (lit. "king of chiefs") or Bādshāh Khān, was a Pashtun political and spiritual leader known for his nonviolent opposition to the British Raj in British India, and a lifelong pacifist and devout Muslim. He was a close friend of Mahatma Gandhi and has been referred to as the "Frontier Gandhi" by the Indians. In 1910, he opened a mosque school at his hometown Utmanzai, and in 1911 joined the freedom movement of Haji Sahib of Turangzai, however in 1915, the British authorities banned his mosque school. Having witnessed the repeated failure of revolts against the British Raj, Ghaffar Khan decided that social activism and reform would be more beneficial for the Pashtuns. This lead to the formation of Anjuman-e Islāh al-Afghān ("Afghan Reform Society") in 1921, and the youth movement Pax̌tūn Jirga ("Pashtun Assembly") in 1927. After his return from the Hajj in May 1928, he founded the Pashto language monthly political journal Pax̌tūn. Finally, in November 1929, he founded the Khudai Khidmatgar ("Servants of God") movement, whose success triggered a harsh crackdown by the British Empire against him and his supporters and they suffered some of the most severe repression of the Indian independence movement. In 1962, Ghaffar Khan was named the Amnesty International Prisoner of Conscience of the Year. In 1987, he became the first non-Indian to be awarded Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award. Ghaffar Khan was an important freedom fighter, and is a Pashtun national hero and a key figure of Pashtun nationalism.